Category Archives: Village of the Damned

Ongoing analysis of the education system in America.

University of Georgia professor creates ‘stress reduction policy‘…

… so students can change their grades, opt out of group work and only hear positive reinforcement when doing in-class presentations

      Professor ‘Satisfier’

A University of Georgia professor has enacted a ‘stress reduction policy’ aimed at allowing students to choose their own grades in hopes of soothing those who ‘feel unduly stressed’ by their earned ones.

Professor Dr. Richard Watson is teaching two fall business courses and has introduced the policy because ’emotional reactions to stressful situation scan have profound consequences for all involved.’

In an emailed response, Dr. Watson who said that his syllabus haven’t been solidified so the policy isn’t currently listed. ‘There is no such policy on the current web site,’ he said in the email. Continue reading

Good News From Alabama After New Orleans’ Political Correctness

Many of us have watched, almost dumbstruck, at the rampant cultural genocide being displayed in New Orleans. The cultural Marxists there, from the mayor on down, have simply run amuck, basically doing what they wanted the way they wanted. To label them as culture destroyers is almost too charitable. I am sure that, along with myself, many others would describe their activities and personalities in language that I would hesitate to have reproduced in this article.

Their execrable attempts at the total destruction of Southern and Confederate history and heritage almost border on the insane–but then, they are cultural Marxists, so I guess that is par for the course. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

UPDATED: The South and Her People

~ Publisher’s NOTE ~
On Thursday, May 18 2017 I was privileged to devote my entire two-hour broadcast to numerous historical lessons of the “War of Northern Aggression.” But it was not so much an attack on the Northern side of the ‘issue’ – it was a historically accurate portrayal of the true causes of the tearing apart of the Nation. What you have just read was the closing recital for the broadcast. What concludes this complete posting – was the music I chose to close the program with. ~ J.B.

The conservative and noble Christian civilization of the South described below has all but vanished as the New South of industrial capitalism, materialism and commercial vulgarity supplanted it. ~ Bernhard Thuersam, April 16, 2017

Benjamin H. Hill Statue, Atlanta, Georgia

Remarks of J.C.C. Black, at the Unveiling of the Benjamin H. Hill Statue, Atlanta, Georgia, May 1, 1886 (excerpt):

“As to us, [secession] was not prompted by hatred of the Union resting upon the consent of the people, and governed by the Constitution of our fathers. It was not intended to subvert the vital principles of the government they founded, but to perpetuate them. The government of the new did not differ in its form or any of its essential principles from the old Confederacy. The Constitutions were the same, except such changes as the wisdom of experience suggested.

The Southern Confederacy contemplated no invasion or conquest. Its chief corner-stone was not African slavery. Its foundations were laid in the doctrines of the Fathers of the Republic, and the chief corner-stone was the essential fundamental principle of free government; that all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

The Reason: No Submission to Northern Manufacturers

Publisher’s NOTE: The original day of publication of this column on the author’s blog, was the 152nd anniversary of the ‘surrender’ of the Confederacy to the ‘Union’ at Appomattox Court House in 1865. ~ J.B.

~ Forewords ~
It is said that the tariff was the most contentious issue in the United States between 1808 and 1832, and this exploded with South Carolina threatening tariff nullification in that latter year. This was settled with Congress steadily lowering tariffs. Economist Frank Taussig wrote in 1931 that by 1857 the maximum duty on imports had been reduced to twenty-four percent and a relative free trade ideal was reached, due to Southern pressure. He also noted that the new Republican-controlled Congress increased duties in December 1861 and that by 1862 the average tariff rates had crept up to 47.06%. ~ Bernhard Thuersam

“South Carolina had opposed the tariff from the earliest days of the republic. The very first Congress, in 1789, had included a group of Carolina representatives known as “anti-tariff men.” When the Washington administration sponsored a mild import measure, Senator Pierce Butler of the Palmetto State brought the charge that Congress was oppressing South Carolina and threatened a “dissolution of the Union, with regard to that State, as sure as God was in his firmament.” (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

Today Jefferson Davis; Tomorrow Thomas Jefferson

This equestrian statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee will be removed from downtown Charlottesville, Va. following a vote by the City Council on Feb. 6, 2017.

All over the United States, memorials and statues of the great men of the Confederacy–along with the flags of the Confederacy–have either already been taken down or efforts are underway to take them down. I’m talking about places such as Biloxi, Mississippi; Charlottesville, Virginia; Austin, Texas; Louisville, Kentucky; Charleston, South Carolina; St. Louis, Missouri; Baltimore, Maryland; Orlando, Florida; and Memphis, Tennessee. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, has taken down the statues of President Jefferson Davis and General P.G.T. Beauregard. The Jefferson Davis statue had stood since 1911. General Beauregard’s statue had stood since 1915.

In 1864, Confederate General Patrick Cleburne warned his fellow southerners of the historical consequences should the South lose their war for independence. He said if the South lost, “It means the history of this heroic struggle will be written by the enemy; that our youth will be trained by Northern schoolteachers; will learn from Northern school books their version of the war; will be impressed by the influences of history and education to regard our gallant dead as traitors, and our maimed veterans as fit objects for derision.” No truer words were ever spoken. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

The Theology of Secession

At the very deepest level there is a central truth about the War Between the States which is now, even by the best of Southerners, almost never mentioned, although their forefathers had once spoken of its importance continuously. Indeed, they put emphasis upon it long after the War was over. From 1850 until 1912, this explanatory assumption was a commonplace component of one understanding of the meaning of that great conflict. And to most Southerners, it seemed almost as self-evident as did the equivalent formulations to their Northern counterparts—especially in the years of Antebellum dispute over the morality of slaveholding and other distinctions of “character” separating the two original versions of American civilization.

When Confederate Southerners stood ready to face death in the place where the battle was joined or when they came to write apologia for their conduct, they saw themselves as part of a struggle between “powers and principalities,” alternative conceptions of the human enterprise—not merely as adjuncts to competing schemes for gathering political power. Southerners, of course, fought to defend themselves and their view of the Constitution. They fought out of a loyalty to “hearth and rooftree,” and to what had been achieved by Americans in general between 1774 and 1791. Further, they were animated by a sense of personal honor and were therefore unwilling to continue association with their detractors within the federal bond once condemned by their erstwhile countrymen to live under the insufferable burden of high-handedness and effrontery. But that is not all of the story concerning their reasons for secession—not even the most interesting part. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

Education: When the Dare’s on to Build a New Social Order

Halsey Junior High School (P.S. 85, Brooklyn, N.Y,)

Progressive Education” came to my school when I was a student at Halsey Junior High School in the 1940s (P.S. 85, Brooklyn, N.Y,). Principal Stella Sweeting was thrilled as a little girl getting a doll house for Christmas, but the rest of us, teachers included, thought this “experiment” in schooling was silly. Oh, it was fun to cut classes and paint murals in the hallways – the brainstorm of class buddy Bob and I that, to our surprise, was approved.

Such “official cheating” didn’t faze those with A’s and B’s in their subjects – we’d catch up later (in high school maybe?) – but what of the students who might stumble from such sliding and find it difficult to overcome the challenges ahead? While this loosening of educational standards at Halsey was, in a word, pleasant, most of my teachers took a dim view of a theory of education that not only ditched authority and tradition but dismissed academic achievement as well – the stance of early 20th Century Marxist education reformers with a mission to prepare America for a socialist future. Why did the “progress” they envisioned in their “progressive” educational method of indoctrination include dumbing? (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

If You Want Great Schools, First Work With Parents to Create ‘Actionable Demand’

“We are investing something like 98 percent of our national philanthropy in supply, and at best 2% in demand, and we’re not seeing equity-focused systems change happen quickly enough.” ~ John King, president and CEO of Education Trust, past U.S. secretary of education

“My mother says if you’re not part of the huddle, you’re not in the game. Parents are not in the game. We’re on the sidelines and we want to know how to get in.” ~ Dawn Foye, parent leader, Boston

Over the past three decades, philanthropy has been catalytic in funding scalable innovations that demonstrate all students can achieve academically. But we have also learned that the supply of these innovations cannot reach their full potential without “actionable demand” that removes the political and policy barriers preventing innovations from being embraced broadly by school systems.

We deliberately use the term “actionable demand” because there is widespread “latent demand” for great schools in all communities, regardless of socioeconomic makeup. All communities care equally about the education and future of their children. But caring is not the same as power. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

Charter Schools Prove Even Slight Separation from Government Yields Better Results

Seems it’s not how much you spend per pupil but how you spend it. ~ Tennessee Gal

(During the week of May 5, 2017) It was National Charter Schools Week, and parents, students, teachers, and community members across the nation are celebrating the success of their independent schools.

Charters are technically public schools, since they’re publicly funded, tuition-free, and open to all students, but they’re privately managed and held to higher accountability standards than traditional public schools in exchange for increased flexibility in other areas. (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

The Common Core Face-off: Hiding the Truth About Choice and Charter Schools

NOTE: Just a bit dated, therefore referrence to names who no longer a part of the picuture, however read and study carefully – IF you are a supporter of Charter Schools or Home Schooling. Contrary to the words of Betsy Devious – Common Core-Uption is still upon the land. Change the names of the players – and nothing will make a difference – until WE the PEOPLE take over the School Boards and route the crooked board members OUT! ~ J.B.

“Those who have the privilege to know, have the duty to act.” ~ Albert Einstein

Obama and ‘Conservative’ Groups Use Bait and Switch Tactics. They are using the momentum against Common Core to complete and further their agenda – “Choice” and Charter Schools.

The truth has uneasy consequences. ‘Conservatives’ and Republicans are revealing their so-called “Choice Plan” that mimics the Obama-Duncan Plan. In an article posted by the ‘conservative’ organization FreedomWorks, their entire proposed controversial agenda for “choice” in education demands rebuttal, discussion and dissection. The Einstein quote at the top of this article validates my decision to act on current documentation, explaining to the American people the danger that these ‘conservative groups’ represent to parents when they demand “choice.” (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

Common Core or Freedom of Choice: Which Will Prevail?

If you have kids in school or you teach schoolchildren, you must remember those halcyon days of 2008, when the idea of a Common Core (CC) to direct and track all American children along educational pathways to careers or college began to take root.

You remember when testing consultant David Coleman and the executive director of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), Gene Wilhoit, visited Microsoft mogul Bill Gates in Seattle to persuade him to generously supplement future governmental funding of Common Core. And did Gates’ foundation ever deliver! It provided grants to write, implement, and finally propagandize CC totaling $384,605,464 as of June 2016.

You also likely remember when later in 2008, a Gates-aided triumvirate consisting of the National Governors Association, CCSSO, and a big-business-led outfit called Achieve started plugging for federal backing for Common Core, which the Obama administration subsequently was thrilled to pledge as part of a “federal-state partnership.” (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

Educator: Schools teach ‘what’ to think, not ‘how’

A retired college professor confirms what many Americans already believe: universities have abandoned the concept of being a marketplace of ideas.

Common Core Standards Test

Speaking on American Family Radio earlier this week, Dr. Carol M. Swain said campuses used to be places with opposing views and debates.

“Opposing sides came together, people listened, and the person with the best arguments and the best data and ideas would be the most persuasive – and people would leave the debate forum probably thinking differently than when they entered because they would have heard more sides,” said Swain, who had been a professor of political science and professor of law at Vanderbilt University since 1999.

“[But] I think the universities today have a viewpoint, and they’re very much into indoctrination; and when students arrive, they teach them what to think, not how to think critically.” (Continue Reading on Metropolis Café)

What Our Politicians Have Done To America: The Healthcare Debacle

In this segment we will look at what our government has allowed to pass as healthcare. Agenda calls it ‘sustainable medicine’ but in reality it is far from it. It should be called sustainable population control. The thought of actually helping people has never crossed their minds. What their goal is is controlling population growth and, unfortunately, this requires the elimination of people. Cancer does two things for the designers of Agenda 21 (2030) it makes billions for them and it lowers the population. You will find that most vaccines now days have chemicals in them that have nothing to do with what you are vaccinated for, mercury is the most commonly used chemical that is a deadly to the human body. Most medical researchers argue that this is probably a coincidence: Autism symptoms tend to become apparent around the same time that children are scheduled to get routine vaccines. Continue reading

The Terrible Truth About Abraham Lincoln and the Confederate War

President Lincoln has been all but deified in America, with a god-like giant statue at a Parthenon-like memorial in Washington. Generations of school children have been indoctrinated with the story that “Honest Abe” Lincoln is a national hero who saved the Union and fought a noble war to end slavery, and that the “evil” Southern states seceded from the Union to protect slavery. This is the Yankee myth of history, written and promulgated by Northerners, and it is a complete falsity. It was produced and entrenched in the culture in large part to gloss over the terrible war crimes committed by Union soldiers in the War Between the States, as well as Lincoln’s violations of the law, his shredding of the Constitution, and other reprehensible acts. It has been very effective in keeping the average American ignorant of the real causes of the war, and the real nature, character and record of Lincoln. Let us look at some unpleasant facts. (Read complete column on Metropolis Café…)

The Need for Civic Education

~ Forewords ~
I have complained about the total LACK of the public schools to teach CIVICS to high schoolers. Learned tonight that it stopped in the 1970’s. I took Civics when I was in the 9th grade and that helped to add to the classes I had in the 8th grade -studying the Constitution – another long forgotten class in today’s schools. It is no wonder we have snowflakes that only understand how to PROTEST and DESTROY Property of others.

They expect everyone to provide for them as being self supporting via a productive job is something they have never been taught…. or know how to do. ~ Jackie Juntti (Read complete column on Metropolis Café…)

Why We Desperately Need To Bring Back Vocational Training In Schools

Instructor helps a student participating in a woodworking manufacturing training program

Throughout most of U.S. history, American high school students were routinely taught vocational and job-ready skills along with the three Rs: reading, writing and arithmetic. Indeed readers of a certain age are likely to have fond memories of huddling over wooden workbenches learning a craft such as woodwork or maybe metal work, or any one of the hands-on projects that characterized the once-ubiquitous shop class.

But in the 1950s, a different philosophy emerged: the theory that students should follow separate educational tracks according to ability. The idea was that the college-bound would take traditional academic courses (Latin, creative writing, science, math) and received no vocational training. Those students not headed for college would take basic academic courses, along with vocational training, or “shop.” (Read complete column on Metropolis Café…)

Children Have Amazing Powers of Memorization… So Why Aren’t Schools Using Them?

According to a recent article in the British Psychological Society’s Research Digest, preschool-age children have a special talent for memorizing and remembering rhymes. As the Digest explains, a recent study found that, compared to their parents and other older adults, young children are able to recall “nearly twice as many correct words” from the rhyming stories they hear, all while making “far fewer errors.”

Anyone who has been around children for a time would readily affirm such findings. Children, as Oxford scholar Dorothy Sayers noted in 1947, follow three stages of development, the earliest of which she calls the “Poll-Parrot” stage: (Read complete column on Metropolis Café…)

The only right answer is to end the Department of Education

Here’s a pop quiz for all you students at every level. It doesn’t matter whether you’re in school today or if you’re simply a student of life (as we all should be until we die). Since Jimmy Carter brought us the Department of Education, what has been the positive impact it’s had on our students, teachers, parents, or communities?

It’s somewhat of a trick question because no matter what positive impact you recall hearing about or seeing on Wikipedia, there are more negatives that have come out of every action the department has taken and every decree they’ve made. I won’t bore you with statistics or point to individual instances of complete failure to improve the quality or efficiency of education in America. Either you see the clear dysfunction in our schools today or you don’t. Nothing I say will change your mind. (Read complete column on Metropolis Café…)

11-Year-Old Docked Points for Not Bashing Trump

To say that some people dislike Donald Trump may well be the understatement of the year. It’s hard to imagine any duly elected president seeing so many protests in his first two months in office, yet here we are.

It’s so bad that now an 11-year-old in Annadale, New York, was docked 15 points on a homework assignment because she failed to answer a question demanding students bash Trump: Continue reading

Can You Handle the Truth?

Publisher’s NOTE: Mr. Newby is a well respected author who has penned many books, of which the image of the book cover below was published by Kettle Moraine Publications in the Winter of 2012. What you are about to read will raise your eyebrows and the question, “What does this have to do with Education?” Mr. Newby’s offering today will put off many of you, while it will enlighten others… but there is a purpose, as he lays the groundwork for who controls the book publishing world for the Public School System in America today. As his bio will show at the end of this column, Frank C. Newby knows of what he speaks.

February 16, 2017
Jeffrey Bennett, Publisher

Why would anyone in their right mind write an article that defies all known Christian concepts and teachings? Why would I want to make some readers angry enough to want me, “To Burn in Hell?

The answer is, today in our society, there are organizations that are working very hard to change the way we live, think and learn. To paraphrase a line from Robert Ingersoll, written in 1893. “Someone has to do it, so it might as well be me.” I will present you with the truth. Do with it what you wish.

If you read this article, you run the very real risk of having your beliefs shaken to their very foundations. The normal life today allows very little time to learn and question. Survival in the twenty first century is a mind numbing experience. You believe you are very religious. You get up each Sunday morning and trudge off to church. You are permitted to place your contribution in that little, felt lined plate, listen to an hour of mindless platitudes and voila! You have your fix for another week. Did you ever ask yourself on Monday afternoon, what message the preacher had given you on Sunday morning? If you honestly remember any portion of the sermon, it would be a miracle. If you do not really remember, you are a typically brainwashed human being, immersed in religious beliefs. You are there not because it is right but because it is expected. Continue reading

Which is the greatest sin, murder of the body or murder of the mind?

Regarding the proper role of education, the following Ayn Rand quote explains:

“The only purpose of education is to teach a student how to live his life—by developing his mind and equipping him to deal with reality. The training he needs is theoretical, i.e., conceptual. He has to be taught to think, to understand, to integrate, to prove. He has to be taught the essentials of the knowledge discovered in the past—and he has to be equipped to acquire further knowledge by his own effort.”

That means the child must start from the building blocks of logic which dictate the learning of any subject must require starting from the essential basic conceptual building blocks, then connecting them in logical order to build the pyramid of understanding that subject matter, e.g. mathematics, science, history, geography, reading, etc. (Continue Reading at the Metropolis Café…)

The TRUTH about Common Core

Writer and veteran teacher Susan Ohanian provides the facts you need to know about the Common Core State Standards.

Bill Gates (Sebastian Derungs)

In response to a poverty rate that tops 90 percent in many urban and rural schools – and 1.6 million homeless children, many in schools with no libraries – education reformers at the White House, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Governors Association call for a radical, untried curriculum overhaul and two versions of nonstop national testing to measure whether teachers are producing workers for the Global Economy.

They call this upheaval the Common Core State (sic) Standards (CCSS), and there are two things to remember: The Common Core did not originate with the states, and it is speculative and experimental–in a word, cuckoo.

I use the (sic) in its title because putting the word “state” in there is a political move, a public relations ploy. Learning from President Bill Clinton’s failure to get the national test he wanted, corporate leaders and their political allies try to keep this school remake as distant from the White House as possible, insisting over and over that it’s a “grassroots initiative” – what the people asked for. Every time they say this, the press repeats it. The Common Core reality is about as far from Mom and apple pie as a zombie invasion. (Continue reading)

Ross: People Actually Believe This Garbage

CLICK on Image

I’m used to arguing with people over slavery being the sole cause of the Civil War; it is what they were taught in schools and I can, at least, understand why they are so vehement in their beliefs. However, the other day I read an article that left me flabbergasted; and then the comments following it showed that there were many who supported the claims made by the author.

The basic premise of this article was that if Robert E. Lee had not accepted command of the Confederate Army the Civil War would not have happened and all those people would not have died.

First off, Lee did not immediately accept the position of Commander of the Confederate Army; he was assigned command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Virginia, if you were not aware of this, did not secede from the Union until Abraham Lincoln called out for volunteers to suppress the rebellion in those States which had already seceded. (Continue…)

Choice, Charter Schools and the Disappearing American Dream

Part I: How the “CHOICE” Fix Won’t Fix Common Core

Is There Such A Thing As A Parallel School System? Looking at the plans puzzling together for a Trump Presidency, education is front and foremost on many parents’ minds. Parent warriors have become concerned to the point of being totally stressed over the appointment of billionaire Betsy DeVos for Secretary of Education. Why is this?

President-Elect Trump promised a vision of life without Common Core —

• A day of looking forward to our kids not being manipulated with the behavioral conditioning processes of teacher-trained Skinnerian techniques;

• A day without government data mining our children and inputting their private behavioral data over to the Feds.

Is our battle over yet? Can we rest assured that Donald Trump will keep his promise to rid our schools of all of the Common Core baggage? Are solid academics on the horizon, again? Continue reading

UN unveils plan to control content of US school textbooks

The United Nations is launching a new initiative to promote “sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights” by controlling the content of school textbooks.

Under the plan, announced in December 2016 in “Policy Paper 28,” the UN is ordering all governments to review the contents of their school textbooks, and eliminate the use of books that do not teach globalist values.

Their goal is to force local schools to ensure “global citizenship education and education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed in national education policies, curricula, teacher education and student assessments,” the paper reveals. Continue reading

Welcome to the New Metropolis

A Study in Education

At the time the Constitution was written, education was not even considered a function of local government, let alone the federal government.

But the Federal Governments Department of Education’s shaky constitutionality goes way beyond that.

Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution enumerates the things over which Congress has the power to legislate. Not only does the list not include education, while there is no plausible rationale for squeezing education in under the commerce clause, We are sure the Supreme Court found a rationale, but it cannot have been plausible. Continue reading

Kindergarten’s Socialist Origins

Horace Mann

Horace Mann

Most schools today, both public and private have kindergartens. They have become an accepted part of educational life in this country and others as well.

This was not always so. When I first attended public school, way back in the mid-1940s, there was no kindergarten where I went. Although some schools undoubtedly had them, all schools did not. They had not become totally entrenched, although their promoters had been working on that project with much zeal. Their efforts seem to have paid off. Kindergarten is now as much a part of school life as the seventh grade.

I have, in the past, written articles and even a couple booklets, dealing with the origins of public, or government, schools in this country. These “institutions of learning” have a history that is never quite openly discussed in all of its ramifications. We often see the names of founders and promoters of public education mentioned in articles or essays, but we are seldom told all that much about these people and what they really believed. Most educators don’t want us to go there. Continue reading

Draining the cultural swamp in our children’s minds

While Donald Trump maneuvers to cleanse government’s cesspool, communities face a bigger challenge at home.

Academics, classroom teachers, newspapers and television, movie stars and the Cultural Arts are seducing our children into believing it is their duty to relinquish their rights for a coveted scrunch into the bloated backseat of the global collective.

Like a crafty Tom Sawyer, who made the drudgery of whitewashing Aunt Polly’s fence so glamorous his friends eagerly surrendered their apples, tadpoles and marbles for the honor, our government persuades Americans that loyalty to fairness, the environment and climate change outweighs their rights over their own property. Continue reading

A Painful Lesson Virginia Learned When Gov’t Took Over Textbook Writing

Educators in Virginia back in the 50’s and 60’s should remember well that we had an example of Common Core enforced by the state for fifteen years. It was an example of what happens when government takes over the writing of history and government textbooks. The story is one I was involved in and should be a warning against letting he Federal Government take control of curriculum in local school systems.

To understand Virginia in the 1940’s and 50’s a description by historian V. O. Key, Jr. in his study of Democrat Party politics in the South summed it up very well. We were described as “the state with the most thorough control by an oligarchy.” While most Virginians alternated between the use of the term “organization” or “machine” for those who ran the state it was accepted that the dominant figure was U. S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. The organization had the ability to keep a tight rein on the government through strong courthouse control and a poll tax. Continue reading

An Open Letter to All Educators

village_of_the_damnedI consider myself a historian of sorts. For the past decade and a half I have been collecting every document I could find from the period which saw our Republic come into existence. Over the past few years I have expanded my search to include documents relating to the period most commonly known as the Civil War. Over the course of this journey of mine there has been a question that has been repeating itself with increasing frequency: Why wasn’t I taught this in school?

I am from the generation known as the Baby Boomers and I graduated from high school in 1976; the year of our nation’s bicentennial. I can honestly say that 90% of the data I have collected was never taught in any of my history or civics classes. Continue reading