How Many Slaves Landed in the US?

100 Amazing Facts About the Negro: You might think you know, but you’re probably wrong.

slavery_middlepassage_101212_400jrwAmazing Fact About the Negro No. 1: How many Africans were taken to the United States during the entire history of the slave trade?

Perhaps you, like me, were raised essentially to think of the slave experience primarily in terms of our black ancestors here in the United States. In other words, slavery was primarily about us, right, from Crispus Attucks and Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin Banneker and Richard Allen, all the way to Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. Think of this as an instance of what we might think of as African-American exceptionalism. (In other words, if it’s in “the black Experience,” it’s got to be about black Americans.) Well, think again…

The most comprehensive analysis of shipping records over the course of the slave trade is the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by professors David Eltis and David Richardson. (While the editors are careful to say that all of their figures are estimates, I believe that they are the best estimates that we have, the proverbial “gold standard” in the field of the study of the slave trade.) Between 1525 and 1866, in the entire history of the slave trade to the New World, according to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World. 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage, disembarking in North America, the Caribbean and South America.

And how many of these 10.7 million Africans were shipped directly to North America? Only about 388,000. That’s right: a tiny percentage.

In fact, the overwhelming percentage of the African slaves were shipped directly to the Caribbean and South America; Brazil received 4.86 million Africans alone! Some scholars estimate that another 60,000 to 70,000 Africans ended up in the United States after touching down in the Caribbean first, so that would bring the total to approximately 450,000 Africans who arrived in the United States over the course of the slave trade.

Incredibly, most of the 42 million members of the African-American community descend from this tiny group of less than half a million Africans. And I, for one, find this amazing.

By the way, how did historian Joel A. Rogers—writer of the 1934 book 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro With Complete Proof, and to whom this series is an homage—do on this question? Well, incredibly, in his “Amazing Fact #30,” Rogers says, “About 12,000,000 Negroes were brought to the New World!” Not even W.E.B. Du Bois got this close to the most accurate count of the number of Africans shipped across the Atlantic in the slave trade.

Henry Louis Gates Jr. is the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and founding director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University. He is also editor-in-chief of The Root. Follow him on Twitter and Facebook.

~ Addendum ~

Fact: Slavery was practiced on a world-wide basis.

Fact: Slavery was practiced for all recorded history.

Fact: The ratification of the US Constitution set a date for the ending of the import of slaves.

Fact: Less than .005% of the imported slaves were not previously enslaved already in Africa prior to transport. Slavery was practiced throughout Africa.

Fact: Nearly every single slave in the Americas, (North, South, Central and Caribbean) were already enslaved in Africa.

Fact: The United States were minor players in the slave trade.

Fact: Citizens of African descent owned slaves in the US.

Fact: The first legal (as determined by a court) slave owner in the English colonies was African.

Fact: The rise in population in slavery in the US had to do with temperate climate and better working conditions than the slaves in South America and the Caribbean.

Fact: The main catalyst to end to slavery came about from Christian societies and usually all-white churches.

Fact: Most of the slaves were enslaved in Africa as punishment for crimes 30%, settlement of debts 35% (it was okay to sell your children, wives or even nieces and nephews) and raids on nearby villages and wars, roughly 35%.

Fact: The slaves that remained in Africa, more often than not, were killed after the harvesting seasons. The tribes didn’t want to have to feed extra mouths if not necessary.

Of course, the Pyramids were built by an all-volunteer work-force. They just posted on Craig’s list and paid them a living wage.

Written by Henry Louis Gates Jr. for The Root, January 6, 2014.

FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

4 thoughts on “How Many Slaves Landed in the US?

  1. A Reader

    This is an excellent analysis that refutes the main premise for presumption of “white guilt” and “white privilege”. As Americans are less and less willing to bow to the blackmail of “racism” and references to slavery, the Left intensifies its propaganda that is supposed to bring whites back under tyranny of Liberalism. Lately, I have seen national efforts of Liberal education establishment to beat white students into submission by bombarding them with fiction that their academic success is a result of their “white privilege”.

    The above nonsense was probably triggered by several writers indicating wide-spread black privilege in the U.S. The most obvious example is our prez. who – without his black privilege – would not have been elected the prez, and even if so, he would not survive long in his office after committing and impressive number of impeachable offenses. It is his black privilege that shields him for any responsibility for his violations of the Constitution, his anti-white policies, and all the damage that he has inflicted to our country.

    Anyone who wants to impose “white guilt” due to blaming white Americans for slavery or to imply that “white privilege” is an instrument of “white supremacy” is not only a liar but also a hostile liar who needs to be dealt with as such.

    Reply
  2. hippybiker

    I have yet to find it, but there was a book written called “They Were White and They Were Slaves.” I understand it debunks a lot of the arguments of the left leaning boobs promulgating the garbage they are pimping in our schools. I will let you know when I read the book.

    Reply
    1. Juanster

      This book’s author is Michael Hoffman. Another source on your topic is; “Emigrants In Chains ” by Peter Wilson Coldham.

      Reply
  3. Pingback: The Insanity Continues | Right Wing Granny

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *